Saint Benedict of
(480 - 543)
Feastday: July 11
Benedict of Nursia (Italian: San Benedetto da Norcia) (c. 480 – 543 or
547) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Churches,
the Catholic Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and
Old Catholic Churches. St. Benedict is the patron saint of Europe and students.
Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Italy (about 40 miles
(64 km) to the east of Rome), before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of
southern Italy. The Order of St Benedict is of later origin and, moreover, not
an "order" as commonly understood but merely a confederation of autonomous
Benedict's main achievement is his "Rule of Saint Benedict", containing precepts
for his monks. It is heavily influenced by the writings of John Cassian, and
shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master. But it also has a unique
spirit of balance, moderation and reasonableness (ἐπιείκεια, epieikeia), and
this persuaded most religious communities founded throughout the Middle Ages to
adopt it. As a result, his Rule became one of the most influential religious
rules in Western Christendom. For this reason, Benedict is often called the
founder of western monasticism.
Apart from a short poem attributed to Mark of Monte Cassino, the only
ancient account of Benedict is found in the second volume of Pope Gregory I's
four-book Dialogues, thought to have been written in 593. The authenticity of
this work has been hotly disputed, especially by Dr Francis Clarke in his two
volume work The Pseudo-Gregorian Dialogues. Book Two consists of a prologue and
thirty-eight succinct chapters.
Gregory’s account of this
saint’s life is not, however, a biography in the
modern sense of the word. It provides instead a spiritual portrait of the gentle,
disciplined abbot. In a letter to Bishop Maximilian of Syracuse, Gregory states
his intention for his Dialogues, saying they are a kind of floretum (an
anthology, literally, 'flowers') of the most striking miracles of Italian holy
Gregory did not set out to write a chronological, historically anchored story of
St. Benedict, but he did base his anecdotes on direct testimony. To establish
his authority, Gregory explains that his information came from what he
considered the best sources: a handful of Benedict’s disciples who lived with
the saint and witnessed his various miracles. These followers, he says, are
Constantinus, who succeeded Benedict as Abbot of Monte Cassino; Valentinianus;
Simplicius; and Honoratus, who was abbot of Subiaco when St Gregory wrote his
In Gregory's day, history was not recognised as an independent field of study;
it was a branch of grammar or rhetoric, and historia (defined as 'story') summed
up the approach of the learned when they wrote what was, at that time,
considered 'history.' Gregory’s Dialogues Book Two, then, an authentic medieval
hagiography cast as a conversation between the Pope and his deacon Peter, is
designed to teach spiritual lessons.
He was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, the modern Norcia, in Umbria. A
tradition which Bede accepts makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica. If
480 is accepted as the year of his birth, the year of his abandonment of his
studies and leaving home would be about 500. St Gregory's narrative makes it
impossible to suppose him younger than 19 or 20 at the time. He was old enough
to be in the midst of his literary studies, to understand the real meaning and
worth of the dissolute and licentious lives of his companions, and to have been
deeply affected himself by the love of a woman. He was at the beginning of life,
and he had at his disposal the means to a career as a Roman noble; clearly he
was not a child.
Benedict does not seem to have left Rome for the purpose of becoming a hermit,
but only to find some place away from the life of the great city. He took his
old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide. Enfide,
which the tradition of Subiaco identifies with the modern Affile, is in the
Simbruini mountains, about forty miles from Rome and two from Subiaco.
A short distance from Enfide is the entrance to a narrow, gloomy valley,
penetrating the mountains and leading directly to Subiaco. The path continues to
ascend, and the side of the ravine, on which it runs, becomes steeper, until a
cave is reached above which the mountain now rises almost perpendicularly; while
on the right, it strikes in a rapid descent down to where, in St Benedict's day,
500 feet (150 m) below, lay the blue waters of the lake. The cave has a large
triangular-shaped opening and is about ten feet deep. On his way from Enfide,
Benedict met a monk, Romanus of Subiaco, whose monastery was on the mountain
above the cliff overhanging the cave. Romanus had discussed with Benedict the
purpose which had brought him to Subiaco, and had given him the monk's habit. By
his advice Benedict became a hermit and for three years, unknown to men, lived
in this cave above the lake. One day, the Devil brought before his imagination a
beautiful woman he had formerly known, inflaming his heart with strong desire
for her. Immediately, Benedict stripped off his clothes and rolled into a
thorn-bush until his body was lacerated. Thus, through the wounds of the body,
he cured the wounds of his soul.
St Gregory tells us little of these years. He now speaks of Benedict no
longer as a youth (puer), but as a man (vir) of God. Romanus, he twice tells us,
served the saint in every way he could. The monk apparently visited him
frequently, and on fixed days brought him food.
During these three years of solitude, broken only by occasional communications
with the outer world and by the visits of Romanus, Benedict matured both in mind
and character, in knowledge of himself and of his fellow-man, and at the same
time he became not merely known to, but secured the respect of, those about him;
so much so that on the death of the abbot of a monastery in the neighbourhood (identified
by some with Vicovaro), the community came to him and begged him to become its
abbot. Benedict was acquainted with the life and discipline of the monastery,
and knew that "their manners were diverse from his and therefore that they would
never agree together: yet, at length, overcome with their entreaty, he gave his
consent" (ibid., 3). The experiment failed; the monks tried to poison him. The
legend goes that they first tried to poison his drink. He prayed a blessing over
the cup and the cup shattered. Thus he left the group and went back to his cave
at Subiaco. There lived in the neighborhood a priest called Florentius who,
moved by envy, tried to ruin him. He tried to poison him with poisoned bread.
When he prayed a blessing over the bread, a raven swept in and took the loaf
away. From this time his miracles seem to have become frequent, and many people,
attracted by his sanctity and character, came to Subiaco to be under his
guidance. Having failed by sending him poisonous bread, Florentius tried to
seduce his monks with some prostitutes. To avoid further temptations, in 530
Benedict left Subiaco. He founded 12 monasteries in the vicinity of Subiaco,
and, eventually, in 530 he founded the great Benedictine monastery of Monte
Cassino, which lies on a hilltop between Rome and Naples.
During the invasion of Italy, Totila, King of the Goths, ordered a general to
wear his kingly robes and to see whether Benedict would discover the truth.
Immediately the Saint detected the impersonation, and Totila came to pay him due
He died at Monte Cassino not long after his sister, Saint Scholastica. Benedict
died of a high fever on the day God had told him he was to die, and was buried
in the same place as his sister. According to tradition, this occurred on 21
March 543 or 547. He was named patron protector of Europe by Pope Paul VI in
1964. In 1980, Pope John Paul II declared him co-patron of Europe, together with
Saints Cyril and Methodius.
In the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar, his feast is kept on 21 March, the day
of his death according to some manuscripts of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum
and that of Bede. Because on that date his liturgical memorial would always be
impeded by the observance of Lent, the 1969 revision of the General Roman
Calendar moved his memorial to 11 July, the date that appears in some Gallic
liturgical books of the end of the 8th century as the feast commemorating his
birth (Natalis S. Benedicti). There is some uncertainty about the origin of this
feast. Accordingly, on 21 March the Roman Martyrology mentions in a line and a
half that it is Benedict's day of death and that his memorial is celebrated on
11 July, while on 11 July it devotes seven lines to speaking of him, and
mentions the tradition that he died on 21 March.
The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates St. Benedict on 14 March.
The Anglican Communion has no single universal calendar, but a provincial
calendar of saints is published in each province. In almost all of these, Saint
Benedict is commemorated on 11 July.
Rule of St. Benedict
Seventy-three short chapters comprise the Rule. Its wisdom is of two kinds:
spiritual (how to live a Christocentric life on earth) and administrative (how
to run a monastery efficiently). More than half the chapters describe how to be
obedient and humble, and what to do when a member of the community is not. About
one-fourth regulate the work of God (the Opus Dei). One-tenth outline how, and
by whom, the monastery should be managed.
Following the golden rule of Ora et Labora - pray and work, the monks each day
devoted eight hours to prayer, eight hours to sleep, and eight hours to manual
work, sacred reading, or works of charity.
The Saint Benedict Medal
medal originally came from a cross in honour of St Benedict. On one side, the
medal has an image of St Benedict, holding the Holy Rule in his left hand and a
cross in his right. There is a raven on one side of him, with a cup on the other
side of him. Around the medal's outer margin are the words "Eius in obitu nostro
praesentia muniamur" ("May we, at our death, be fortified by His presence"). The
other side of the medal has a cross with the initials CSSML on the vertical bar
which signify "Crux Sacra Sit Mihi Lux" ("May the Holy Cross be my light") and
on the horizontal bar are the initials NDSMD which stand for "Non Draco Sit Mihi
Dux" ("Let not the dragon be my overlord"). The initials CSPB stand for "Crux
Sancti Patris Benedicti" ("The Cross of the Holy Father Benedict") and are
located on the interior angles of the cross. Either the inscription "PAX" (Peace)
or the Christogram "IHS" may be found at the top of the cross in most cases.
Around the medal's margin on this side are the Vade Retro Satana initials
VRSNSMV which stand for "Vade Retro Satana, Nonquam Suade Mihi Vana" ("Begone
Satan, do not suggest to me thy vanities") then a space followed by the initials
SMQLIVB which signify "Sunt Mala Quae Libas, Ipse Venena Bibas" ("Evil are the
things thou profferest, drink thou thy own poison").
Benedict depicted on a Jubilee Saint Benedict Medal for the 1400th anniversary
of his birth in 1880
This medal was first struck in 1880 to commemorate the fourteenth centenary of
St Benedict's birth and is also called the Jubilee Medal; its exact origin,
however, is unknown. In 1647, during a witchcraft trial at Natternberg near
Metten Abbey in Bavaria, the accused women testified they had no power over
Metten, which was under the protection of the cross. An investigation found a
number of painted crosses on the walls of the abbey with the letters now found
on St Benedict medals, but their meaning had been forgotten. A manuscript
written in 1415 was eventually found that had a picture of Saint Benedict
holding a scroll in one hand and a staff which ended in a cross in the other. On
the scroll and staff were written the full words of the initials contained on
the crosses. Medals then began to be struck in Germany, which then spread
throughout Europe. This medal was first approved by Pope Benedict XIV in his
briefs of 23 December 1741, and 12 March 1742.
Saint Benedict has been also the motive of many collector's coins around the
world. The Austria 50 euro 'The Christian Religious Orders', issued on 13 March
2002 is one of them.
The influence of St. Benedict
The early Middle Ages have been called "the Benedictine centuries." In April
2008, Pope Benedict XVI discussed the influence St Benedict had on Western
Europe. The pope said that "with his life and work St Benedict exercised a
fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture"
and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the
fall of the Roman empire.
St. Benedict contributed more than anyone else to the rise of monasticism in the
West. His Rule was the foundational document for thousands of religious
communities in the Middle Ages. To this day, The Rule of St. Benedict is the
most common and influential Rule used by monasteries and monks, more than 1,400
years after its writing. Today the Benedictine family is represented by two
branches: the Benedictine Federation and the Cistercians.
The influence of St Benedict produced "a true spiritual ferment" in Europe, and
over the coming decades his followers spread across the continent to establish a
new cultural unity based on Christian faith.
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